A Measurement Scale for Agile Orientation


  • Philippe Cohard Université de Montpellier, MRM, Montpellier, France. I-Site MUSE, Labex Entreprendre, Institut Montpellier Management.
  • Karim Messeghem Université de Montpellier, MRM, Montpellier, France. I-Site MUSE, Labex Entreprendre, Institut Montpellier Management.


agile orientation, agile methods, agility, project management, innovation


Agile methods can help improve a firm’s adaptability. This adaptability, which is also widely considered in digital transformation, is central in the MIS research agenda. The current pandemic period presents a further challenge to the adaptability of firms. Agility has aroused strong interest among professionals as a way to improve and structure their management approach; it is a management model that has evolved via successive contributions. Many studies have examined the implementation and contributions of agile methods, but few studies have characterized the dimensions underlying these methods. In addition, organizations gain agility by introducing a project mode, an intermediate element that has not been considered. This article provides theoretical and managerial contributions by taking into account the dimensions related to this element of agility and focuses on the characterization of the agile dimensions through the following question: What are the components of an agile orientation? Our literature review identifies the dimensions of agile orientation that we link to the dynamic capabilities theory. This exploratory research is based on a scale development approach that provides validity and reliability and leads to the reconfiguration of the model (alertness, reactivity, autonomy, generate diversity). Data are collected by a questionnaire (sample size n=600). This research also represents a contribution for enterprises through the construction of an index for the evaluation of the agile orientation called the global index of agile orientation (GIAO). The results of this research allow us to take the next step in connecting agile orientation to other variables.

Author Biographies

Philippe Cohard, Université de Montpellier, MRM, Montpellier, France. I-Site MUSE, Labex Entreprendre, Institut Montpellier Management.

Philippe Cohard est Maître de Conférences à l’Université de Montpellier, Docteur en Sciences de Gestion. Il est enseignant à l’institut Montpellier Management où il codirige le Master Management de Projet Intrapreneurial et Digital. Il est chercheur au laboratoire MRM dans le groupe Systèmes d’Information et membre du Labex Entreprendre. Ses thèmes de recherche sont : la conception et l’évaluation des systèmes d’information, les serious games, l’innovation et le management public.

Karim Messeghem, Université de Montpellier, MRM, Montpellier, France. I-Site MUSE, Labex Entreprendre, Institut Montpellier Management.

Karim Messeghem est professeur agrégé des Universités en entrepreneuriat et stratégie à l’Université de Montpellier. Fondateur de Montpellier Management et du LabEx Entreprendre, il codirige la chaire Jacques Coeur pour l’accompagnement entrepreneurial. Il dirige plusieurs formations en Entrepreneuriat et programmes Executive pour des dirigeants de PME. Ses recherches menées au sein de MRM et du LabEx Entreprendre portent sur les écosystèmes entrepreneuriaux et les stratégies entrepreneuriales des PME. Il a publié plusieurs ouvrages et une cinquantaine d’articles dans des revues nationales et internationales. Il est responsable scientifique pour la France du Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM).


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Empirical research