Redesigning business models to leverage members’ participation in online communities: The case of the French gambling industry

Marie Joachim, Alexis Laszczuk


With the spread of information and communication technologies, online communities have emerged as new type of key stakeholder for firms. These online gathering spaces provide customers with new ways to interact with companies and their own peers. While online communities are acknowledged as a source of value for their members and host firms, leveraging them remains a challenge for companies, and mean redesigning their business model. Based on a case study of the French gambling industry, we show that through their participation, members of online communities bring new resources and competences, which firms can use to reshape the mechanisms of value creation and capture. We highlight two execution mechanisms for redesigning a business model around online communities and leveraging such communities to enhance firms’ performance.


business model; online communities; customers’ participation; netnography

Full Text:

 Subscribers Only


Accenture. (2014), Remaking customer markets: Unlocking growth with digital.

Agarwal R., Gupta A. K. & Kraut R. (2008), “The interplay between digital and social networks”, Information Systems Research, vol. 19, n°3, pp. 243–252.

Al-Debei M. M. & Avison D. (2010), “Developing a unified framework of the business model concept”, European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 19, pp. 359–376.

Amit R. & Zott C. (2001), “Value creation in e-business”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 22, n°6–7, pp. 493–520.

ARJEL. (2019), Analyse trimestrielle du marché des jeux en ligne en France.

Aversa P., Furnari S. & Haefliger S. (2015), “Business model configurations and performance: A qualitative comparative analysis in Formula One racing, 2005-2013”, Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 24, n°3, pp. 655–676.

Aversa P., Haefliger S., Hueller F. & Reza D. (2020), “Customer complementarity in the digital space: Exploring Amazon’s business model diversification”, Long Range Planning, n°February, p. 101985.

Aversa P., Haefliger S. & Reza D. G. (2017), “Building a winning business model portfolio”, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 58, n°4, pp. 49–54.

Baden-Fuller C. & Haefliger S. (2013), “Business Models and Technological Innovation”, Long Range Planning, vol. 46, n°6, pp. 419–426.

Baird A. & Raghu T. S. (2015), “Associating consumer perceived value with business models for digital services”, European Journal of Information Systems, Nature Publishing Group, vol. 24, n°1, pp. 4–22.

Barrett M., Oborn E. & Orlikowski W. (2016), “Creating Value in Online Communities : The Sociomaterial Configuring of Strategy, Platform, and Stakeholder Engagement”, Information Systems Research, vol. 27, n°4, pp. 704–723.

Bateman P. J., Gray P. H. & Butler B. S. (2011), “The impact of community commitment on participation in online communities”, Information Systems Research, vol. 22, n°4, pp. 841–854.

Bauer J., Franke N. & Tuertscher P. (2016), “Intellectual Property Norms in Online Communities: How User-Organized Intellectual Property Regulation Supports Innovation”, Information Systems Research, vol. 27, n°4, pp. 724–750.

Bennett L. W. & Segerberg A. (2012), “The Logic of Connective Action: The Personalization of Contentious Politics”, Information, Communication and Society, vol. 15, n°5, pp. 739–768.

Bharadwaj A., El Sawy O. A., Pavlou P. A. & Venkatraman N. (2013), “Digital Business Strategy: toward a next generation of insights.”, MIS Quarterly, MIS Quarterly, vol. 37, n°2, pp. 471–482.

Björkdahl J. & Holmén M. (2013), “Editorial: Business model innovation-the challenges ahead”, International Journal of Product Development, vol. 18, n°3–4, pp. 213–225.

Blaschke M., Riss U., Haki K. & Aier S. (2019), “Design principles for digital value co-creation networks: a service-dominant logic perspective”, Electronic Markets, vol. 29, n°3, pp. 443–472.

Bojovic N., Genet C. & Sabatier V. (2018), “Learning, signaling, and convincing: The role of experimentation in the business modeling process”, Long Range Planning, vol. 51, n°1, pp. 141–157.

Burger-Helmchen T. & Cohendet P. (2011), “User communities and social software in the video game industry”, Long Range Planning, vol. 44, n°5–6, pp. 317–343.

Butler B. (2001), “Membership, size, communication activity and sustainabilty: a resource-based model of online social structures”, Information Systems Research, vol. 12, n°4, pp. 346–362.

Casadesus-Masanell R. & Ricart J. E. (2010), “From Strategy to Business Models and to Tactics”, Long Range Planning, vol. 43, n°2–3, pp. 195–215.

Ceccagnoli M., Forman C., Huang P. & Wu D. J. (2012), “Co-creation of value in a platform ecosystem: The case of enterprise software”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 36, n°1, pp. 263–290.

Chau M. & Xu J. (2012), “Business Intelligence in Blogs: Understanding Consumer Interactions and Communities”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 36, n°4, pp. 1189–1216.

Chen H. M., Kazman R., Schütz R. & Matthes F. (2017), “How Lufthansa capitalized on big data for business model renovation”, MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 16, n°1, pp. 19–34.

Chen J., Xu H. & Whinston A. B. (2011), “Moderated online communities and quality of user-generated content”, Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 28, n°2, pp. 237–268.

Chesbrough H. & Rosenbloom R. S. (2002), “The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation : evidence from Xerox Corporation ’ s technology spin-off companies”, Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 11, n°3, pp. 529–555.

Chesney T., Coyne I., Logan B. & Madden N. (2009), “Griefing in virtual worlds: Causes, casualties and coping strategies”, Information Systems Journal, vol. 19, n°6, pp. 525–548.

Demil B. & Lecocq X. (2010), “Business Model Evolution : In Search of Dynamic Consistency”, Long Range Planning, vol. 43, pp. 227–246.

Demil B. & Lecocq X. (2015), “Crafting an innovative business model in an established company: The role of artifacts”, in Baden-Fuller, C. and Mangematin, V. (Eds.), Business Models and Modelling, Emerald Group Publishing, pp. 31–58.

Demil B., Lecocq X., Ricart J. E. & Zott C. (2015), “Introduction to the SEJ Special Issue on Business Models: Business Models Wihtin the Domain of Strategic Entrepreneurship”, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, vol. 9, pp. 1–11.

Dong J. Q. & Wu W. (2015), “Business value of social media technologies: Evidence from online user innovation communities”, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Elsevier B.V., vol. 24, n°2, pp. 113–127.

Dubosson-Torbay M., Osterwalder A. & Pigneur Y. (2002), “E-business model design, classification, and measurements”, Thunderbird International Business Review, vol. 44, n°1, pp. 5–23.

Eiglier P. & Langeard E. (1987), Servuction : le marketing des services, 4th Edition, Paris : Ediscience international, Paris.

Eisenhardt K. M. (1989), “Building Theories from Case Study Research”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 14, n°4, pp. 532–550.

Eisenhardt K. M. & Graebner M. E. (2007), “Theory Building from Cases : Opportunities and Challenges”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 50, n°1, pp. 25–32.

Faraj S., Jarvenpaa S. L. & Majchrzak A. (2011), “Knowledge Collaboration in Online Communities”, Organization Science, vol. 22, n°5, pp. 1224–1239.

Faraj S. & Johnson S. L. (2011), “Network Exchange Patterns in Online Communities”, Organization Science, vol. 22, n°6, pp. 1464–1480.

Faraj S., Krogh G. Von, Monteiro E. & Lakhani K. R. (2016), “Special Section Introduction — Online Community as Space for Knowledge Flows”, Information Systems Research, vol. 27, n°4, pp. 668–684.

Faraj S., Kudaravalli S. & Wasko M. (2015), “Leading Collaborations in Online Communities”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 39, n°2, pp. 393–412.

Fisher G. (2019), “Online communities and firm advantages”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 44, n°2, pp. 279–298.

Franke N., Keinz P. & Schreier M. (2008), “Complementing mass customization toolkits with user communities: How peer input improves customer self-design”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 25, pp. 546–559.

Füller J. (2010), “Refining Virtual Co-Creation from a Consumer Pespective”, California Management Review, vol. 52, n°2, pp. 98–122.

Füller J., Jawecki G. & Mühlbacher H. (2007), “Innovation creation by online basketball communities”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 60, n°1, pp. 60–71.

Füller J., Mühlbacher H., Matzler K. & Jawecki G. (2009), “Consumer Empowerment Through Internet-Based Co-creation”, Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 26, n°3, pp. 71–102.

Di Gangi P. M. & Wasko M. (2009), “Steal my idea! Organizational adoption of user innovations from a user innovation community: A case study of Dell IdeaStorm”, Decision Support Systems, vol. 48, pp. 303–312.

Garreau L., Maucuer R. & Laszczuk A. (2015), “Understanding business model change implementation. The contribution of the 4C model”, Management International, vol. 19, n°3, pp. 169–183.

Goh K. Y., Heng C. S. & Lin Z. (2013), “Social Media Brand Community and Consumer Behavior: Quantifying the Relative Impact of User- and Marketer-Generated Content.”, Information Systems Research, vol. 24, n°1, pp. 88–107.

Goodhue D. L. & Thompson R. L. (1995), “Task-technology fit and individual performance”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 19, n°2, pp. 213–233.

Hedman J. & Kalling T. (2003), “The business model concept: Theoretical underpinnings and empirical illustrations”, European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 12, pp. 49–59.

Helfat C. E. & Raubitschek R. S. (2018), “Dynamic and integrative capabilities for profiting from innovation in digital platform-based ecosystems”, Research Policy, vol. 47, n°8, pp. 1391–1399.

Henderson J. C. & Venkatraman N. (1993), “Strategic alignment: leveraging information technology for transforming organizations”, IBM Systems Journal, vol. 38, n°2, pp. 472–484.

Hienerth C., Keinz P. & Lettl C. (2011), “Exploring the nature and implementation process of user-centric business models”, Long Range Planning, Elsevier Ltd, vol. 44, n°5–6, pp. 344–374.

Hienerth C., Lettl C. & Keinz P. (2014), “Synergies among producer firms, lead users, and user communities: The case of the LEGO producer-user ecosystem”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 31, n°4, pp. 848–866.

Von Hippel E. (1986), “Lead Users: a Source of Novel Product Concepts.”, Management Science, vol. 32, n°7, pp. 691–705.

Huang P., Tafti A. & Mithas S. (2018), “Platform sponsor investments and user contributions in knowledge communities: The role of knowledge seeding”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 42, n°1, pp. 213–240.

Jeppesen L. B. (2005), “User Toolkits for Innovation: Consumers Support Each Other”, The Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 22, pp. 347–362.

Jeppesen L. B. & Frederiksen L. (2006), “Why do users contribute to firm-hosted user communities? The case of computer-controlled music instruments”, Organization Science, vol. 17, n°July 2015, pp. 45–63.

Keen P. & Williams R. (2014), “Value Architectures for Digital Business: Beyond the Business Model”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 37, n°2, pp. 643–647.

Korczynski M. & Ott U. (2004), “When production and consumption meet: Cultural contradictions and the enchanting myth of customer sovereignty”, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 41, n°4, pp. 575–599.

Kozinets R. V. (2002), “The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities”, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 39, n°1, pp. 61–72.

Kozinets R. V. (2010), Netnography doing ethnographic research online, Sage, Los Angeles, California.

Lakhani K. R. & Von Hippel E. (2003), “How Open Source software works: ‘Free’ user-to-user assistance”, Research Policy, vol. 32, n°6, pp. 923–943.

Langer R. & Beckman S. C. (2005), “Sensitive research topics: netnography revisited”, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 8, n°2, pp. 189–203.

Laszczuk A. & Mayer J. C. (2020), “Unpacking business model innovation through an attention-based view”, M@n@gement, vol. 23, n°1, pp. 38–60.

Lepak D. P., Smith K. G. & Taylor M. . S. (2007), “Introduction to Special Topic Forum: Value Creation and Value Capture: A Multilevel Perspective”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 32, n°1, pp. 180–194.

Liu H., Zhang J., Liu R. & Li G. (2014), “A model for consumer knowledge contribution behavior: the roles of host firm management practices, technology effectiveness, and social capital”, Information Technology and Management, vol. 15, n°4, pp. 255–270.

Lusch R. F., Vargo S. L. & Gustafsson A. (2016), “Fostering a transdisciplinary perspectives of service ecosystems”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 69, n°8, pp. 2957–2963.

Ma M. & Agarwal R. (2007), “Through a Glass Darkly: Information Technology Design, Identity Verification, and Knowledge Contribution in Online Communities”, Information Systems Research, vol. 18, n°1, pp. 42–67.

Magretta J. (2002), “Why Business Models Matter A Conversation with Robert Redford”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 80, n°5, pp. 86–92.

Majchrzak A. & Malhotra A. (2013), “Towards an information systems perspective and research agenda on crowdsourcing for innovation”, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Elsevier B.V., vol. 22, n°4, pp. 257–268.

Massa L. & Tucci C. L. (2014), “Business Model Innovation”, The Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management, pp. 420–441.

Maucuer R. & Renaud A. (2019), “Business model research: A bibliometric analysis of origins and trends”, M@n@gement, vol. 22, n°2, pp. 176–215.

Maucuer R., Renaud A., Snihur Y. & Bojovic N. (2020), “Business Model Research in the Information Systems Literature: A Review and a Research Agenda”, Systèmes d’information & Management.

Mein Goh J., Gao G. & Agarwal R. (2016), “The Creation of Social Value: Can an Online Health Community Reduce Rural-Urban Health Disparities?”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 40, n°1, pp. 247–263.

Miles M. B., Huberman A. M. & Saldana J. (2014), “Qualitative data analysis: A method sourcebook”, Sage Publications, Los Angeles London New Delhi : Sage , cop. 2014, Los Angeles London New Delhi.

Mo J., Sarkar S. & Menon S. (2018), “Know when to run: Recommendations in crowdsourcing contests”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 42, n°3, pp. 919–943.

Ogawa S. & Piller F. T. (2006), “Reducing the Risks of New Product Development”, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 47, n°2, pp. 65–71.

OHern M. . & Rindfleisch A. (2015), “Customer Co-Creation. A Typology and Research Agenda”, Review of Marketing Research, vol. 6, pp. 84–106.

Osterwalder A., Pigneur Y. & Smith A. (2014), “Value proposition design : how to create products and services customers want”, Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons , 2014, Hoboken.

Park E. H., Im G., Storey V. C. & Baskerville R. L. (2019), “Never, never together again: How postpurchase affect drives consumer outcomes within the context of online consumer support communities”, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 20, n°1, pp. 58–104.

Parmentier G. & Gandia R. (2013), “Managing sustainable innovation with a user community toolkit: The case of the video game Trackmania”, Creativity and Innovation Management, vol. 22, n°2, pp. 195–208.

Pateli A. G. & Giaglis G. M. (2004), “A research framework for analysing eBusiness models”, European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 13, pp. 302–314.

Pfeffer J. & Salancik G. R. (1978), The external control of organizations a resource dependence perspective, Harper & Row, New York.

Plé L. (2016), “Studying customers’ resource integration by service employees in interactional value co-creation”, Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30, n°2, pp. 152–164.

Plé L. & Lecocq X. (2015), “Customers as creative resources: their influence on firm freedom”, Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 36, n°4, pp. 11–22.

Plé L., Lecocq X. & Angot J. (2010), “Customer-integrated business models: A theoretical framework”, M@n@gement, vol. 13, n°4, pp. 226–265.

Priem R. L., Wenzel M. & Koch J. (2018), “Demand-side strategy and business models: Putting value creation for consumers center stage”, Long Range Planning, Elsevier Ltd, vol. 51, n°1, pp. 22–31.

Rai A. & Tang X. (2014), “Information technology-enabled business models: A conceptual framework and a coevolution perspective for future research”, Information Systems Research, vol. 25, n°1, pp. 1–14.

Rietveld J. (2018), “Creating and capturing value from freemium business models: A demand-side perspective”, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, vol. 12, n°2, pp. 171–193.

Roberts N. & Grover V. (2012), “Leveraging Information Technology Infrastructure to Facilitate a Firm’s Customer Agility and Competitive Activity: An Empirical Investigation”, Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 28, n°4, pp. 231–270.

Rouquet A. & Suquet J. B. (2020), “Knocking sovereign customers off their pedestals? When contact staff educate, amateurize, and penalize deviant customers”, Human Relations.

Sabatier V., Craig-Kennard A. & Mangematin V. (2012), “When technological discontinuities and disruptive business models challenge dominant industry logics: Insights from the drugs industry”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 79, n°5, pp. 949–962.

Sabatier V., Mangematin V. & Rousselle T. (2010), “From recipe to dinner: Business model portfolios in the european biopharmaceutical industry”, Long Range Planning, vol. 23, n°2–3, pp. 431–447.

Salesforce. (2016), Customer Expectations Hit All-Time Highs.

Setia P., Setia P., Venkatesh V. & Joglekar S. (2013), “Leveraging Digital Technologies: How Information Quality Leads to Localized Capabilities and Customer Service”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 37, n°2, pp. 565–590.

Snihur Y. & Tarzijan J. (2018), “Managing complexity in a multi-business-model organization”, Long Range Planning, Elsevier Ltd, vol. 51, n°1, pp. 50–63.

Snihur Y. & Wiklund J. (2019), “Searching for innovation: Product, process, and business model innovations and search behavior in established firms”, Long Range Planning, vol. 52, n°3, pp. 305–325.

Sproull L. & Arriaga M. (2012), “Online Communities”, in Bidogli, H. (Ed.), Handbook of Computer Networks, VOL. 3., Vol. 3, Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 898–914.

Sproull L., Dutton W. & Kiesler S. (2007), “Introduction to the special issue: Online communities”, Organization Studies, vol. 28, n°3, pp. 277–281.

Susarla A., Oh J.-H. & Tan Y. (2012), “Social Networks and the Diffusion of User- Generated Content : Evidence from YouTube”, Information Systems Research, vol. 23, n°1, pp. 23–41.

Teece D. J. (2010), “Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation”, Long Range Planning, vol. 43, n°2–3, pp. 172–194.

Thomke S. & Von Hippel E. (2002), “Customers as Innovators: A New Way to Create Value”, Harvard Business Review, n°April, pp. 1–11.

Timmers P. (1998), “Business Models for Electronic Markets”, Electronic Markets, vol. 8, n°2, pp. 3–8.

Vaast E., Safadi H., Lapointe L. & Negoita B. (2017), “Social media affordances for connective action: An examination of microblogging use during the Gulf of Mexico oil spill”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 41, n°4, pp. 1179–1206.

Vitari C. & Raguseo E. (2016), “Digital data, dynamic capability and financial performance: an empirical investigation in the era of Big Data”, Systèmes d’information & Management, vol. 21, n°3, p. 63.

Wagner D., Wenzel M., Wagner H.-T. & Koch J. (2017), “Sense, seize, reconfigure: online communities as strategic assets”, Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 38, n°5, pp. 27–34.

Walsh I., Renaud A. & Kalika M. (2013), “The Translated Strategic Alignment Model: A Practice-Based Perspective”, Systèmes d’information & Management, vol. 18, n°2, p. 37.

Wenzel M., Wagner H. T. & Koch J. (2017), “The funeral industry and the Internet: On the historical emergence and destabilization of strategic paths”, European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 26, n°4, pp. 361–378.

Wiertz C. & De Ruyter K. (2007), “Beyond the call of duty: Why customers contribute to firm-hosted commercial online communities”, Organization Studies, vol. 28, n°3, pp. 347–376.

Wirtz B. W., Schilke O. & Ullrich S. (2010), “Strategic Development of Business Models”, Long Range Planning, vol. 43, n°2–3, pp. 272–290.

Yan L., Peng J. & Tan Y. (2015), “Network Dynamics: How Can We Find Patients Like Us?”, Information Systems Research, vol. 26, n°3, pp. 496–512.

Yi Y. & Gong T. (2013), “Customer value co-creation behavior: Scale development and validation”, Journal of Business Research, Elsevier Inc., vol. 66, n°9, pp. 1279–1284.

Yin R. K. (2013), “Validity and generalization in future case study evaluations”, Evaluation, vol. 19, n°3, pp. 321–332.

Zott C., Amit R. & Massa L. (2011), “the Business Model: Recent Developments and Future Research”, Journal of Management, vol. 37, n°4, pp. 1019–1042.


Copyright (c) 2021 Systèmes d'Information et Management (French Journal of Management Information Systems)