Between communities of practice and epistemic communities: the emergence of hybrid communities in urban spaces

Karine Evrard Samuel, Maxime Carré

Abstract


Communities are gradually being formed in many French towns around urban logistics issues. The latter creates major environmental and societal challenges and involves a multitude of stakeholders who need to improve collaborative relationships. Our objective in this paper is to analyze how the notion of community allows clarifying the particular collaboration between private and public stakeholders in urbans spaces. Based on an empirical research carried out on a community under construction in the city of Grenoble, France, we propose to illustrate the emergence of this community. We analyze the process and point out that building the community is characterized by a growing interaction between public and private actors, the establishment of rules of communication and the emergence of several projects that aim to develop innovative solutions. Our results allow us to define the outlines of a new type of community that we call hybrid, crossing the characteristics of communities of practice and epistemic communities. We shed light on the elements that contribute to the success of this community, but also the barriers to its development, its maintenance and the deployment of several actions by the members of the community. This research project let emerge a new organizational object that breaks with the traditional codes of CoPs. The governance of urban spaces, mixing private and public stakeholders, can thus be illuminated under a new and innovative lens in the context of the study of territories and communities.


Keywords


Logistique urbaine, Parties prenantes, Communautés de pratiques, Communautés épistémiques

Full Text:

 Subscribers Only

References


Amin A., Roberts J. (2008), Knowing in action: Beyond communities of practice. Research policy, 37 (2), 353-369.

Armand P., Evrard Samuel K., Cung V.D. (2013), Logistique urbaine : une création de valeur par des partenariats multi-acteurs, Revue Française de Gestion Industrielle, 32 (4), 53-72.

Blanchard M., Nadeau C. (2007), Cul-de-sac: l'impasse de la voiture en milieu urbain, Héliotrope.

Brown, J. S., Duguid, P. (2001), Knowledge and Organization: A Social-Practice Perspective, Organization Science, 12 (2), 198-213.

Browne M., Sweet M., Woodburn A., Allen J., (2005), Urban freight consolidation centres, Final Report for the Department for transport. November 2nd.

Centre d’Analyse Stratégique, Pour un renouveau de la logistique urbaine, 3 avril 2012, www.strategie.gouv.fr

Chanut O., Paché G., Wagenhausen F. (2012), Logistique urbaine: refonder les logiques d’intermédiation, Management & Avenir, 51, 186–207.

Crook C. (1999), Computers in the community of classrooms. In K. Littleton & P. Light (Eds.), Learning with computers. Analysing productive interaction, London: Routledge, 102-117.

Dablanc L. (2006), Goods transport in large European cities: difficult to organize, difficult to modernize, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41 (3), 280–285.

Dillenbourg, P., Poirier, C., & Carles, L. (2003). Communautés virtuelles d’apprentissage: e-jargon ou nouveau paradigme. A. Taurisson et A. Sentini. Pédagogies. Net. Montréal, Presses, 11-47.

Elidrissi D & Hauch V, 2008, Systèmes régionaux d’innovation : superpositions et articulations : l’exemple de Sophia Antipolis, La Revue des Sciences de Gestion, 233, septembre-octobre, 59-66.

DG MOVE European Commission: Study on Urban Freight Transport, Final Report, MDS Transmodal Limited in association with Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL), 2012.

Evrard Samuel K., Cung V.D. (2014), Analyse comparée des solutions de logistique urbaine, 4ème colloque de logistique urbaine (CLUN), Nantes, 16 octobre.

Frédouet, C. H., & Le Mestre, P. (2005). La construction d’un outil de mesure de la performance des réseaux interorganisationnels: une étude des réseaux d’acteurs portuaires. Finance Contrôle Stratégie, 8 (4), 5-32.

Goglio-Primard K., Crespin-Mazet F. (2011), Knowledge transfer within clusters: the catalyst role of private collective support structures, Management & Avenir, 50, 190-206.

Gozé-bardin, I. (2009). Les défis de la logistique de distribution à l’horizon 2035. Management & Avenir, 4 (24), 217–236.

Haas P.M. (1992), Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination, International Organization, 46 (1), 1-35.

Henri F., Pudelko B. (2003), Understanding and analysing activity and learning in virtual communities, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Wiley-Blackwell, 19, 474-487.

Kern F., Larue de Tournemine R. (2009), Système d’appui, accompagnement et communautés. Les communautés en pratique, Editions Lavoisier, 221-239.

Laubard B., Lissorgues G. (2010), La logistique urbaine, fonction vitale pour la métropole parisienne, Rapport du CCIP.

Lave, J., Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation, Cambridge University Press.

Morana J., Gonzalez-Feliu J. (2011), Le transport urbain vert de marchandises : leçons tirées de l'expérience de la ville de Padoue en Italie. Gestion - Revue Internationale de Gestion, HEC Montréal, 36 (2), 18-26.

Quak H. J. (2011), Urban freight transport: the challenge of sustainability. In Macharis C. et Melo S. (eds.), City distribution and urban freight transport: multiple perspectives, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 37-56.

Quak, H. J., De Koster, M. B. M. (2009). Delivering Goods in Urban Areas: How to Deal with Urban Policy Restrictions and the Environment. Transportation Science, 43(2), 211–227.

Sonntag M. (2009), Approche sociocognitive des apprentissages dans les communautés de pratique. Les communautés en pratique, Editions Lavoisier, 43-61.

Star S.L., Griesemer J. (1989), Institutionnal Ecology, ‘Translations’, and Boundary Objects: amateurs and professionals on Berkeley’s museum of vertrebate zoologie, Social Studies of Science, 19 (3), 387-420.

Trentini A., Gonzalez-Feliu J., Malhéné N. (2013), Développement des espaces logistiques urbains : CDU et ELP dans l’Europe du Sud-Ouest, 1er Colloque de la chaire FRELON, Paris, 22 mars 2011, halshs-00818718.

Wenger E. (1998), Communities of practice. Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge University Press. Traduction française (2005) La théorie des communautés de pratique : apprentissage, sens et identité. Les Presses de l’Université Laval.

Wenger E. (2000), Communities of practice: the organizational frontier. Harvard Business Review, January-February.

Wenger E., McDermott R., Snyder W.M. (2002), Cultivating Communities of Practice, Harvard Business Press.

Wilson G., Herndl C. G. (2007), Boundary Objects as Rhetorical Exigence: Knowledge Mapping and Interdisciplinary Cooperation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 21 (2), 129-154.

Zajac E. and Olsen C.-P. (1993), “From transaction-costs to transaction-value analysis: implication for the study of inter-organisational strategies”, Journal of Management Studies, 30, 131-145.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9876/sim.v23i1.760

Copyright (c) 2018 Systèmes d'Information et Management (French Journal of Management Information Systems)