Open Source Companies’ Absorptive Capacity: from Business Model to Business Intention

Khaireddine Mouakhar, Nordine Benkeltoum


Absorptive capacity is a firm’s ability to identify, assimilate, transform and exploit external knowledge for value creation. The information systems literature has shown its critical role to create competitive advantages. This research studies the relationship between external environment exposure and the ability to create value based on external information. It re-examines the foundations of absorptive capacity through the business model framework. This research analyses absorptive capacity of 71 firms operating in a weak appropriability sector (open source). Using a mixed method research setting, it models how companies create and strategically maintain their absorptive capacity. The contribution of this article is twofold. First, it shows that firms that claim interacting the most with communities have a high probability to have a low absorptive capacity. Conversely, firms that pretend interacting the least with their environment have a high probability to have a high absorptive capacity. Secondly, this research argues that firm absorptive capacity is mainly explained by the intention that motivates environment interaction.


Absorptive capacity, business model, open source, intention, mixed methods research 

Full Text:

 Subscribers Only


Agerfalk, P. J. & Fitzgerald, B. (2008) "Outsourcing to an Unknown Workforce: Exploring Opensourcing as a Global Sourcing Strategy." Management Information System Quarterly, Vol. 32, n°2: p. 385-409.

Ahn, J. M., Ju, Y., Moon, T. H., Minshall, T., Probert, D., Sohn, S. Y. & Mortara, L. (2016) "Beyond absorptive capacity in open innovation process: the relationships between openness, capacities and firm performance." Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 28, n°9: p. 1009-1028.

Ali, M., Seny Kan, K. A. & Sarstedt, M. (2016) "Direct and configurational paths of absorptive capacity and organizational innovation to successful organizational performance." Journal of Business Research, Vol. 69, n°11: p. 5317-5323.

Allen, R. C. (1983) "Collective Invention." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol., n°4: p. 1-24.

Amabilé, S., Meissonier, R., Haller, C. & Boudrandi, S. (2012) "Capacité d'absorption des informations et pratiques de veille stratégique dans les PME: une étude sur des domaines vitivinicoles provençaux." Systèmes d'Information et Management, Vol. 17, n°3: p. 111-142.

Bardin, L. (1993) L'analyse de contenu. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Battilana, J. & Lee, M. (2014) "Advancing Research on Hybrid Organizing – Insights from the Study of Social Enterprises." The Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 8, n°1: p. 397-441.

Ben Youssef, A., Hadhri, W. & Meharzi, T. (2015) "Adoption of Cloud Computing in Emerging Countries: The Role of the Absorptive Capacity." Systèmes d'Information et Management, Vol. 20, n°4: p. 117-142.

Benkeltoum, N. (2011a) Gérer et comprendre l'open source. Paris: Presses des Mines.

Benkeltoum, N. (2011b) "Regards sur les stratégies de détournement dans l’industrie open source." Vie et sciences de l'entreprise, Vol., n°187: p. 72-91.

Benkeltoum, N. (2013) "Évaluation de l'innovation des logiciels open source." Système d'Information et Management, Vol. 18, n°3: p. 37-84.

Benkler, Y. (2002) "Coase’s Penguin, or Linux and the Nature of the Firm." Yale Law Journal, Vol. 112, n°3: p. 369-446.

Bitzer, J. & Schröder, P. J. H. (2005) "Bug-fixing and Code-writing: the Private Provision of Open Source Software." Information Economics and Policy, Vol. 17, n°3: p. 389-406.

Boland, R. J. & Tenkasi, R. V. (1995) "Perspective Making and Perspective Taking in Communities of Knowing." Organization Science, Vol. 6, n°4: p. 350-372.

Bonaccorsi, A., Giannangeli, S. & Rossi, C. (2006) "Entry Strategies Under Competing Standards: Hybrid Business Models in the Open Source Software Industry." Management Science, Vol. 52, n°7: p. 1085-1098.

Brown, J. S. & Duguid, P. (1991) "Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: toward a unified view of working, learning and innovation." Organization Science, Vol. 2, n°1: p. 40-57.

Casadesus-Masanell, R. & Llanes, G. (2011) "Mixed Source." Management Science, Vol. 57, n°7: p. 1212-1230.

Chaudhuri, S. & Tabrizi, B. (1999) "Capturing the Real Value in High-Tech Acquisitions." Harvard Business Review, Vol. 77, n°5: p. 123-130.

Chen, Y.-S., Lin, M.-J. J. & Chang, C.-H. (2009) "The positive effects of relationship learning and absorptive capacity on innovation performance and competitive advantage in industrial markets." Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 38, n°2: p. 152-158.

Chesbrough, H. (2007) "Business model innovation: it’s not just about technology anymore." Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 35, n°6: p. 12-17.

Christensen, C. M. & Bower, J. L. (1996) "Customer Power, Strategic Investment, And The Failure Of Leading Firms." Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17, n°3: p. 197-218.

Cohen, W. M. & Levinthal, D. A. (1989) "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R & D." The Economic Journal, Vol. 99, n°397: p. 569-596.

Cohen, W. M. & Levinthal, D. A. (1990) "Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation." Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, n°1: p. 128-152.

Colombo, M. G., Piva, E. & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2013) "Authorising Employees to Collaborate with Communities During Working Hours: When is it Valuable for Firms?" Long Range Planning, Vol. 46, n°3: p. 236-257.

Colombo, M. G., Piva, E. & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2014) "Open Innovation and Within-industry Diversification in Small and Medium Enterprises: The case of Open Source Software Firms." Research Policy, Vol. 43, n°5: p. 891-902.

Comino, S. & Manenti, F. M. (2011) "Dual licensing in open source software markets." Information Economics and Policy, Vol. 23, n°3–4: p. 234-242.

Cooper, V. & Molla, A. (2017) "Information systems absorptive capacity for environmentally driven IS‐enabled transformation." Information Systems Journal, Vol. 27, n°4: p. 379-425.

Coris, M. (2006) "Les Consortiums Ouverts : une nouvelle approche pour la standardisation des logiciels ?" Revue d'économie industrielle, Vol., n°116: p. 105-126.

Creswell, J. W. (2013) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches: SAGE Publications.

Creswell, J. W. & Clark, V. L. P. (2007) Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research: SAGE Publications.

Dahlander, L. (2005) "Appropriation and Appropriability in Open Source Software." International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 9, n°3: p. 259-285.

Dahlander, L. & Magnusson, M. (2008) "How do Firms Make Use of Open Source Communities?" Long Range Planning, Vol., n°41: p. 629-649.

Dahlander, L. & Magnusson, M. G. (2005) "Relationships between Open Source Software Companies and Communities: Observations from Nordic Firms." Research Policy, Vol. 34, n°4: p. 481-493.

Dahlander, L. & Wallin, M. W. (2006) "A Man on the Inside: Unlocking Communities as Complementary Assets." Research Policy, Vol. 35, n°7: p. 1243-1259.

DaSilva, C. M. & Trkman, P. (2014) "Business Model: What It Is and What It Is Not." Long Range Planning, Vol. 47, n°6: p. 379-389.

Demil, B. & Lecocq, X. (2010) "Business Model Evolution: In Search of Dynamic Consistency." Long Range Planning, Vol. 43, n°2–3: p. 227-246.

Denham, B. E. (2017) "Ordinal Logistic Regression." in Categorical Statistics for Communication Research.

Deodhar, S. J., Saxena, K. B. C., Gupta, R. K. & Ruohonen, M. (2012) "Strategies for Software-based Hybrid Business Models." The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 21, n°4: p. 274-294.

Domurath, A. & Patzelt, H. (2016) "Entrepreneurs' Assessments of Early International Entry: The Role of Foreign Social Ties, Venture Absorptive Capacity, and Generalized Trust in Others." Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 40, n°5: p. 1149-1177.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989) "Building Theories from Case Study Research." The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, n°4: p. 532-550.

Eisenhardt, K. M. & Graebner, M. E. (2007) "Theory Building from Cases: Opportunities and Challenges." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 50, n°1: p. 25-32.

Feller, J., Finnegan, P., Fitzgerald, B. & Hayes, J. (2008) "From Peer Production to Productization: A Study of Socially Enabled Business Exchanges in Open Source Service Networks." Information Systems Research, Vol. 19, n°4: p. 475-493.

Fitzgerald, B. (2006) "The Transformation of Open Source Software." Management Information System Quarterly, Vol. 30, n°3: p. 587-598.

Foray, D. (2004) Economics of Knowledge: MIT Press.

Ford, C. M. (1996) "A Theory of Individual Creative Action in Multiple Social Domains." The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, n°4: p. 1112-1142.

Free Software Foundation. (2009) "Catégories de logiciels libres et non libres"

Fritscher, B. & Pigneur, Y. (2015) "A Visual Approach to Business IT Alignment between Business Model and Enterprise Architecture." International Journal of Information System Modeling and Design, Vol. 6, n°1: p. 1-23.

Fuggetta, A. (2003) "Controversy Corner: Open source software an evaluation." The Journal of Systems and Software, Vol., n°66: p. 77-90.

Fukawa, N. & Zhang, Y. (2015) "Profit-sharing between an open-source firm and application developers — Maximizing profits from applications and in-application advertisements." Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 48: p. 111-120.

Gavetti, G. & Levinthal, D. (2000) "Looking Forward and Looking Backward: Cognitive and Experiential Search." Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 45, n°1: p. 113-137.

Glaser, B. G. & Strauss, A. L. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research: Transaction Publishers.

Goldman, R. & Gabriel, R. P. (2005) Innovation Happens Elsewhere: Open Source as Business Strategy: Elsevier Science.

Grand, S., von Krogh, G., Leonard, D. & Swap, W. (2004) "Resource Allocation Beyond Firm Boundaries." Long Range Planning, Vol. 37, n°6: p. 591-610.

Guimaraes, T., Thielman, B., Guimaraes, V. C. & Cornick, M. (2016) "Absorptive Capacity As Moderator For Company Innovation Success." International Journal of the Academic Business World, Vol. 10, n°2: p. 1-18.

Haigh, N. & Hoffman, A. J. (2012) "Hybrid organizations: The next chapter of sustainable business." Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 41, n°2: p. 126-134.

Harison, E. & Koski, H. (2010) "Applying open innovation in business strategies: Evidence from Finnish software firms." Research Policy, Vol. 39, n°3: p. 351-359.

Helfat, C. E. (2000) "Guest editor's introduction to the special issue: the evolution of firm capabilities." Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 21, n°10-11: p. 955-959.

Henderson, J. C. & Venkatraman, N. (1993) "Strategic alignment: leveraging information technology for transforming organizations." IBM Syst. J., Vol. 32, n°1: p. 4-16.

Henkel, J. (2006) "Selective Revealing in Open Innovation Processes: The Case of Embedded Linux." Research Policy, Vol. 35, n°7: p. 953-969.

Hosmer, D. W. & Lemeshow, S. (2000) Applied Logistic Regression: Wiley.

Höst, M. & Oručević-Alagić, A. (2011) "A systematic review of research on open source software in commercial software product development." Information and Software Technology, Vol. 53, n°6: p. 616-624.

Howison, J. & Crowston, K. (2014) "Collaboration through open superposition: a theory of the open source way." Management Information System Quarterly, Vol. 38, n°1: p. 29-50.

Huber, G. P. (1991) "Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literatures." Organization Science, Vol. 2, n°1: p. 88-115.

Jullien, N. (2007) "Économie: impact du libre sur le marché logiciel." Archimag. Hors-série, Vol., n°30: p. 8-10.

Kim, L. (1997) "The Dynamics of Samsung's Technological Learning in Semiconductors." California Management Review, Vol. 39, n°3: p. 86-100.

Kocoglu, I., Akgün, A. E. & Keskin, H. (2015) "The Differential Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Product Innovativeness: A Theoretically Derived Framework." International Business Research, Vol. 8, n°7: p.

Koestler, A. (1964) The Act of Creation: Arkana.

Kogut, B. (2000) "The network as knowledge: generative rules and the emergence of structure." Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 21, n°3: p. 405-425.

Kranz, J. J., Hanelt, A. & Kolbe, L. M. (2016) "Understanding the influence of absorptive capacity and ambidexterity on the process of business model change – the case of on-premise and cloud-computing software." Information Systems Journal, Vol. 26, n°5: p. 477-517.

Kulins, C., Leonardy, H. & Weber, C. (2016) "A configurational approach in business model design." Journal of Business Research, Vol. 69, n°4: p. 1437-1441.

Lakhani, K. & von Hippel, E. (2003) "How open source software works: "free" user-to-user assistance." Research Policy, Vol. 32, n°6: p. 923-943.

Lakhani, K. R. & Wolf, R. (2005) "Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects." in Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software, edited by J. Feller, B. Fitzgerald, S. Hissam, and K. R. Lakhani. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Lane, P. J., Koka, B. R. & Pathak, S. (2006) "The reification of absorptive capacity: A critical review and rejuvenation of the construct." Academy of management review, Vol. 31, n°4: p. 833-863.

Lebraty, J.-F. & Lobre-Lebraty, K. (2010) "Créer de la valeur par le crowdsourcing: la dyade Innovation-Authenticité." Systèmes d'Information et Management, Vol. 15, n°3: p. 9-40.

Lecocq, X., Demil, B. & Ventura, J. (2010) "Business models as a research program in strategic management: An appraisal based on Lakatos." M@ n@ gement, Vol. 13, n°4: p. 214-225.

Lee, G. K. & Cole, R. E. (2003) "From a Firm-Based to a Community-Based Model of Knowledge Creation: The Case of the Linux Kernel Development." Organization Science, Vol. 14, n°6: p. 633-649.

Lichtenthaler, U. (2016) "Absorptive capacity and firm performance: an integrative framework of benefits and downsides." Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 28, n°6: p. 664-676.

Lichtenthaler, U. & Lichtenthaler, E. (2009) "A Capability-Based Framework for Open Innovation: Complementing Absorptive Capacity." Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 46, n°8: p. 1315-1338.

Lisein, O., Pichault, F. & Desmecht, J. (2009) "Les business models des sociétés de services actives dans le secteur Open Source." Systèmes d'Information et Management, Vol. 14, n°2: p. 7-38.

Lofstrom, S. M. (2000) "Absorptive capacity in strategic alliances: investigating the effects of individuals’ social and human capital on inter-firm learning." in Organization Science Winter Conference. Colorado.

Loilier, T. & Tellier, A. (2004) "Comment peut-on se faire confiance sans se voir ? Le cas du développement des logiciels libres." M@n@gement, Vol. 7, n°3: p. 275-306.

Lyles, M. A. & Schwenk, C. R. (1992) "Top Management, Strategy and Organizational Knowledge Structures." Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 29, n°2: p. 155-174.

March, J. G. & Simon, H. A. (1993) Organizations: Wiley.

Matusik, S. F. (2000) "Absorptive capacity and firm knowledge: Separating the effects of public knowledge, flexible firm boundaries, and firm absorptive abilities." in Organization Science Winter Conference, Keystone, CO.

McCullagh, P. (1980) "Regression Models for Ordinal Data." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), Vol. 42, n°2: p. 109-142.

McCullagh, P. (2002) "What is a statistical model?" The Annals of Statistics, Vol. 30, n°5: p. 1225-1310.

McCullagh, P. & Nelder, J. A. (1989) Generalized Linear Models, Second Edition: Taylor & Francis.

Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mingers, J. (2000) "Variety is the spice of life: combining soft and hard OR/MS methods." International Transactions in Operational Research, Vol. 7, n°6: p. 673-691.

Mouakhar, K. & Hachard, V. (2018) "Finalités des organisations hybrides à travers une lecture de leurs business model : le cas de l'open source." Finance Contrôle Stratégie, Vol. 21, n°1: p.

Mouakhar, K. & Tellier, A. (2013) "Comment concilier marchand et non-marchand : une taxonomie empirique des comportements stratégiques des SSLL." Systèmes d'Information et Management, Vol. 18, n°3: p. 5-36.

Mouakhar, K. & Tellier, A. (2017) "How do Open Source Software Companies Respond to Institutional Pressures? A Business Model Perspective." Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 30, n°4: p. 534-554.

Moyon, E. & Lecocq, X. (2014) "Rethinking Business Models in Creative Industries." International Studies of Management and Organization, Vol. 44, n°4: p. 83-101.

Muselli, L. (2008) "Le rôle des licences dans les modèles économiques des éditeurs de logiciels open source." Revue Française de Gestion, Vol. 1, n°181: p. 199-214.

Nguyen, G. D. & Pénard, T. (2004) "La gratuité à la croisée des nouveaux modèles d'affaires sur l'Internet." Réseaux, Vol., n°2: p. 81-109.

Noblet, J.-P. & Simon, É. (2010) "La capacité d'absorption, un état de l'art." Management & Avenir, Vol., n°5: p. 33-50.

Noda, T. & Bower, J. L. (1996) "Strategy making as iterated processes of resource allocation." Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17, n°S1: p. 159-192.

Norušis, M. J. S. I. (2012) IBM SPSS Statistics 19 Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion: Prentice Hall.

O'Mahony, S. & Bechky, B. A. (2008) "Boundary organizations: Enabling collaboration among unexpected allies." Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 53, n°3: p. 422-459.

O’Mahony, S. (2003) "Guarding the Commons: How Community Managed Software Projects Protect their Work." Research Policy, Vol., n°32: p. 1179-1198.

O’Mahony, S. (2005) "Non-Profit Foundations and their Role in Community-Firm Software Collaboration " Pp. 393-413 in Making Sense of the Bazaar: Perspectives on Open Source and Free Software, edited by J. Feller, B. Fitzgerald, S. A. Hissam, and K. R. Lakhani: The MIT Press.

O’Mahony, S. (2007) "The governance of open source initiatives: what does it mean to be community managed?" Journal Management Governance, Vol., n°11: p. 139-150.

O’Mahony, S. & Ferraro, F. (2007) "The emergence of governance in an Open source community." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 50, n°5: p. 1079-1106.

Osterloh, M. & Rota, S. (2007) "Open source software development: Just another case of collective invention?" Research Policy, Vol. 36, n°2: p. 157-171.

Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y. (2013) "Designing Business Models and Similar Strategic Objects: The Contribution of IS." Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 14, n°5: p. 237-244.

Penrose, E. (2009) The Theory of the Growth of the Firm: OUP Oxford.

Perr, J., Appleyard, M. M. & Patrick, P. (2010) "Open for business: emerging business models in open source software." International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 52, n°3/4: p. 432-456.

Pfeffer, J. (1981) Power in organizations: Pitman Pub.

Plé, L., Lecocq, X. & Angot, J. (2010) "Customer-Integrated Business Models: A Theoretical Framework." M@n@gement, Vol. 13, n°4: p. 226-265.

Qian, H. & Acs, Z. J. (2013) "An absorptive capacity theory of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship." Small Business Economics, Vol. 40, n°2: p. 185-197.

Rajala, R., Westerlund, M. & Möller, K. (2012) "Strategic flexibility in open innovation – designing business models for open source software." European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 46, n°10: p. 1368-1388.

Reagans, R. & McEvily, B. (2003) "Network Structure and Knowledge Transfer: The Effects of Cohesion and Range." Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 48, n°2: p. 240-267.

Rispal, M. H. (2002) La méthode des cas: Application à la recherche en gestion: De Boeck Supérieur.

Roberts, N., Galluch, P. S., Dinger, M. & Grover, V. (2012) "Absorptive Capacity and Information Systems Research: Review, Synthesis, and Directions for Future Research." Management Information System Quarterly, Vol. 36, n°2: p. 625-648.

Rossi, C. (2009) "Software Innovativeness. A Comparison Between Proprietary and Free/Open Source Solutions Offered by Italian SMEs." R&D Management, Vol. 39, n°2: p. 153-169.

Sabatier, V., Mangematin, V. & Rousselle, T. (2010) "From recipe to dinner: business model portfolios in the European biopharmaceutical industry." Long Range Planning, Vol. 43, n°2: p. 431-447.

Sakhdari, K. (2016) "Corporate Entrepreneurship: A Review and Future Research Agenda." Technology Innovation Management Review, Vol. 6, n°8: p.

Schilling, M. A. (1998) "Technological Lockout: An Integrative Model of the Economic and Strategic Factors Driving Technology Success and Failure." The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 23, n°2: p. 267-284.

Schweisfurth, T. G. & Raasch, C. (2018) "Absorptive capacity for need knowledge: Antecedents and effects for employee innovativeness." Research Policy, Vol. 47, n°4: p. 687-699.

Seddon, P. B., Lewis, G. P., Freeman, P. & Shanks, G. (2004) "The Case for Viewing Business Models as Abstractions of Strategy." Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 13, n°25: p. 427-442.

Song, Y., Gnyawali, D. R., Srivastava, M. K. & Asgari, E. (2018) "In Search of Precision in Absorptive Capacity Research: A Synthesis of the Literature and Consolidation of Findings." Journal of Management, Vol. 44, n°6: p. 2343-2374.

Teece, D. J. (1986) "Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy." Research Policy, Vol. 15, n°6: p. 285-305.

Teece, D. J. (2010) "Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation." Long Range Planning, Vol. 43, n°2–3: p. 172-194.

Todorova, G. & Durisin, B. (2007) "Absorptive Capacity: Valuing a Reconceptualization." The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 32, n°3: p. 774-786.

Van Wijk, R., Van den Bosch, F. & Volberda, H. (2001) "The impact of knowledge depth and breadth of absorbed knowledge on levels of exploration and exploitation." in Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Annual Reviews, Washington, DC.

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A. & Bala, H. (2013) "Bridging the Qualitative–Quantitative Divide: Guidelines for Conducting Mixed Methods Research in Information Systems." Management Information System Quarterly, Vol. 37, n°1: p. 21-54.

Vermeulen, F. & Barkema, H. (2001) "Learning through Acquisitions." The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44, n°3: p. 457-476.

Verstraete, T. & Jouison-Laffitte, E. (2010) "Le business model : une quête de sens et un outil pour la pédagogie et la pratique de l’entrepreneuriat." Revue POUR, Vol., n°numéro 204: p. 39-49.

Volberda, H. W., Foss, N. J. & Lyles, M. A. (2010) "PERSPECTIVE—Absorbing the Concept of Absorptive Capacity: How to Realize Its Potential in the Organization Field." Organization Science, Vol. 21, n°4: p. 931-951.

Von Hippel, E. (2007) "Horizontal innovation networks—by and for users." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 16, n°2: p. 293-315.

von Hippel, E. (2010) "Comment on ‘Is open innovation a field of study or a communication barrier to theory development?’." Technovation, Vol. 30, n°11-12: p. 555.

Von Hippel, E. & Von Krogh, G. (2003) "Open Source Software and the “Private-Collective” Innovation Model: Issues for Organization Science." Organization Science, Vol. 14, n°2: p. 209-223.

von Krogh, G. & von Hippel, E. (2006) "The Promise of Research on Open Source Software." Management Science, Vol. 52, n°7: p. 975-983.

Walsh, J. P. & Ungson, G. R. (1991) "Organizational Memory." The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16, n°1: p. 57-91.

Weick, K. E. & Roberts, K. H. (1993) "Collective Mind in Organizations: Heedful Interrelating on Flight Decks." Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 38, n°3: p. 357-381.

Wernerfelt, B. (1984) "A resource‐based view of the firm." Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 5, n°2: p. 171-180.

West, J. (2003) "How open is open enough? Melding proprietary and open source platform strategies." Research Policy, Vol. 32, n°7: p. 1259-1285.

West, J. & Gallagher, S. (2006) "Challenges of open innovation: the paradox of firm investment in open‐source software." R&D Management, Vol. 36, n°3: p. 319-331.

Winter, S. G. (2000) "The Satisficing Principle in Capability Learning." Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 21, n°10/11: p. 981-996.

Zaheer, A. & Bell, G. G. (2005) "Benefiting from network position: firm capabilities, structural holes, and performance." Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 26, n°9: p. 809-825.

Zahra, S. A. & George, G. (2002) "Absorptive Capacity: A Review, Reconceptualization, and Extension." The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 27, n°2: p. 185-203.

Zimmermann, J.-B. & Foray, D. (2001) "L'économie du logiciel libre. Organisation coopérative et incitation à l'innovation." Revue économique, Vol.: p. 77-93.

Zott, C., Amit, R. & Massa, L. (2011) "The Business Model: Recent Developments and Future Research." Journal of Management, Vol. 37, n°4: p. 1019-1042.


Copyright (c) 2020 Systèmes d'Information et Management (French Journal of Management Information Systems)