Privacy and Intelligent Virtual Assistants Usage through Generations


  • Hajer Kefi Paris School of Business
  • Ekaterina Besson Paris School of Business
  • Karina Sokolova Paris School of Business
  • Chiraz Aouina-Mejri Paris School of Business


Uses and Gratifications Theory, Intelligent Virtual Assistant, Privacy Concerns, Continuance Intention to use, Generational Effect


In this paper, we develop a research model of users’ gratifications and continuance intention to use Intelligent Virtual Assistants (IVAs). Drawing on Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT), we consider that utilitarian and hedonic gratifications, jointly with perceived subjective norms and perceived critical mass could affect positively IVA users’ continuance intention. Whereas, perceived privacy concerns construct could play an inhibiting role of this continuance intention. Our model is tested within a population of 295 users representing generations Y, X and Baby Boomers. Structural Equation Modeling techniques have been applied and have generated results showing significant differences between the three sub-samples, especially concerning privacy concerns which are not perceived by seniors as a constraint to their IVA’s continuance intention. This study contributes to the literature on Artificial Intelligent-based devices usage, UGT, privacy concerns and generational effect. It also provides vendors developing these tools with useful insights on how to retain their users depending on their age.

Author Biographies

Hajer Kefi, Paris School of Business

Hajer Kefi is a Full Professor of Management Information Systems and Digital Marketing in EMLV Ecole de Management Léonard de Vinci. She is an invited professor in the National University of Singapore. Her research interests include social media analytics, EWOM and influencer marketing, Information Technology ethics, Information Technology and Museology, Dark Side of digital devices usage (addiction and technostress). She received a PhD degree in Management Science from the University of Paris Dauphine and a post-doctoral degree in Research Supervision (HDR) from the University of Paris Sud, France. She has obtained several awards, such as the Best Dissertation in Management Information Systems (FNEGE/Robert Reix) Award and many Best Papers awards in different international conferences. Her work has appeared in two books and several book chapters, and also in numerous research articles in premier scientific journals, such as Journal of Business Research, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Information Technology and People, International Journal of Information Management, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Management International and Systèmes d’Information et Management.

Ekaterina Besson, Paris School of Business

Ekaterina Besson holds a PhD from the University of Birmingham and is an Associate Professor at Paris School of Business. She is a member of the new Practices for Innovation and Creativity chair (newPIC). Her research interests include social media usage, artificial intelligence-based technology adoption, business services and knowledge integration. Ekaterina’s publications are within the domain of information technology, innovation management and business services.

Karina Sokolova, Paris School of Business

Karina Sokolova holds an engineer’s degree and PhD from the University of Technology of Troyes. She is currently an Associate Professor at Paris School of Business. Her research interests include social media analysis, cyber security, privacy and, more generally, the influence of new technologies and media. She has authored multiple books.

Chiraz Aouina-Mejri, Paris School of Business

Chiraz Aouina-Mejri (PhD, Paris-Est University) is an associate professor at Paris School of Business). Her research interests include corporate social responsibility, consumer’s resistance and consumer behavior. Her research has been published in such journals as International Journal of Market Research, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services and Journal of Business Research. Her research has also been presented at numerous national and international marketing conferences.


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Empirical research