Acceptance of MaaS mobile applications: an application of UTAUT2 in the context of French smart cities


  • Cédrine Zumbo-lebrument ESC Clermont Business School, CleRMa, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • Norbert Lebrument Université Clermont Auvergne, CleRMa, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • Corinne Rochette Université Clermont Auvergne, CleRMa, Clermont-Ferrand, France


ville intelligente, Mobility as a Service, UTAUT2, services intégrés de mobilité


In recent years, the smart mobility inherent in smart city projects has been translated into the implementation of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) offerings embodied in platforms accessible from integrated service mobile applications. In this context, the aim of this article is to present the findings from an application of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) model to mobile MaaS applications (MMAs). Based on a sample of 693 respondents, the findings highlight the positive influence of performance expectancy, trust in technology and habit on the user’s intention to use MMAs. They also show that habit and intention to use MMAs have a significant positive effect on users’ actual usage behavior. Our findings demonstrate the predictive value of UTAUT2 for understanding and anticipating MMAs acceptance. Managerial recommendations based on our findings are formulated.



Ajzen I. (1991), "The theory of planned behavior", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 50, n°2, p.p. 179‑211.

Ajzen I. & Fishbein M. (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, N.J, Pearson.

Alalwan A.A. (2020), "Mobile food ordering apps: an empirical study of the factors affecting customer e-satisfaction and continued intention to reuse", International Journal of Information Management, vol. 50, p.p. 28‑44.

Alalwan A.A., Dwivedi Y.K. & Rana N.P. (2017), "Factors influencing adoption of mobile banking by jordanian bank customers: extending utaut2 with trust", International Journal of Information Management, vol. 37, n°3, p.p. 99‑110.

Alalwan A.A., Dwivedi Y.K., Rana N.P. & Algharabat R. (2018), "Examining factors influencing jordanian customers’ intentions and adoption of internet banking: extending utaut2 with risk", Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 40, p.p. 125‑138.

Alalwan A.A., Dwivedi Y.K., Rana N.P., Lal B. & Williams M.D. (2015), "Consumer adoption of internet banking in jordan: examining the role of hedonic motivation, habit, self-efficacy and trust", Journal of Financial Services Marketing, vol. 20, n°2, p.p. 145‑157.

Alvesson M. & Kärreman D. (2007), "Constructing mystery: empirical matters in theory development", Academy of Management Review, vol. 32, n°4, p.p. 1265‑1281.

Anderson J.C. & Gerbing D.W. (1988), "Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach", Psychological Bulletin, vol. 103, n°3, p.p. 411‑423.

Arias-Molinares D. & García-Palomares J.C. (2020), "The ws of maas: understanding mobility as a service from a literature review", IATSS Research. Available at: [Consulté le avril 30, 2020].

ATEC ITS France (2015), Livre Vert : Mobilité 3.0 Ensemble pour la mobilité intelligente,

Bandura A. (1986), Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Becker J.-M., Klein K. & Wetzels M. (2012), "Hierarchical latent variable models in pls-sem: guidelines for using reflective-formative type models", Long Range Planning, vol. 45, n°5‑6, p.p. 359‑394.

Ben-Elia E. & Avineri E. (2015), "Response to travel information: a behavioural review", Transport Reviews, vol. 35, n°3, p.p. 352‑377.

Bobillier-Chaumon M.-E. (2016), "L’acceptation située des technologies dans et par l’activité : premiers étayages pour une clinique de l’usage", Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations, vol. 22, n°1, p.p. 4‑21.

Bobillier-Chaumon M.-É. & Dubois M. (2009), "L’adoption des technologies en situation professionnelle : quelles articulations possibles entre acceptabilité et acceptation ?", Le travail humain, vol. 72, n°4, p.p. 355‑382.

Brangier É., Hammes-Adelé S. & Bastien J.-M.C. (2010), "Analyse critique des approches de l’acceptation des technologies : de l’utilisabilité à la symbiose humain-technologie-organisation", European Review of Applied Psychology, vol. 60, n°2, p.p. 129‑146.

Casaló L.V., Flavián C. & Guinalíu M. (2007), "The role of security, privacy, usability and reputation in the development of online banking", Online Information Review, vol. 31, n°5, p.p. 583‑603.

Cheung M.W.-L. (2015), Meta–Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach, Chichester, West Sussex, Wiley-Blackwell.

Chin W.W. & Dibbern J. (2010), "An introduction to a permutation based procedure for multi-group pls analysis: results of tests of differences on simulated data and a cross cultural analysis of the sourcing of information system services between germany and the usa". In V. Esposito Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang, éd. Handbook of Partial Least Squares. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 171‑193. Available at: [Consulté le mai 13, 2019].

Compeau D.R. & Higgins C.A. (1995), "Computer self-efficacy: development of a measure and initial test", MIS Quarterly, vol. 19, n°2, p.p. 189‑211.

Davis F.D. (1985), "A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems : theory and results", Available at: [Consulté le janvier 19, 2019].

Davis F.D. (1989), "Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology", MIS Quarterly, vol. 13, n°3, p.p. 319‑340.

Davis F.D., Bagozzi R.P. & Warshaw P.R. (1989), "User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models", Management Science, vol. 35, n°8, p.p. 982‑1003.

Diamantopoulos A., Sarstedt M., Fuchs C., Wilczynski P. & Kaiser S. (2012), "Guidelines for choosing between multi-item and single-item scales for construct measurement: a predictive validity perspective", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 40, n°3, p.p. 434‑449.

Diamantopoulos A. & Siguaw J.A. (2006), "Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: a comparison and empirical illustration", British Journal of Management, vol. 17, n°4, p.p. 263‑282.

Dodds W.B., Monroe K.B. & Grewal D. (1991), "Effects of price, brand, and store information on buyers’ product evaluations", Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 28, n°3, p.p. 307‑319.

Duarte P. & Pinho J.C. (2019), "A mixed methods utaut2-based approach to assess mobile health adoption", Journal of Business Research, vol. 102, p.p. 140‑150.

Durán-Sánchez A., de la Cruz del Río-Rama M., Sereno-Ramírez A. & Bredis K. (2017), "Sustainability and quality of life in smart cities: analysis of scientific production". In M. Peris-Ortiz, D. R. Bennett, & D. Pérez-Bustamante Yábar, éd. Sustainable Smart Cities: Creating Spaces for Technological, Social and Business Development. Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management. Cham, Springer International Publishing, p. 159‑181. Available at: [Consulté le août 28, 2018].

Esposito Vinzi V., Chin W.W., Henseler J. & Wang H. (2010), Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications, Springer Science & Business Media.

Farag S. & Lyons G. (2008), "What affects use of pretrip public transport information?: empirical results of a qualitative study", Transportation Research Record. Available at: [Consulté le juin 27, 2020].

Fishbein M. & Ajzen I. (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesley.

Fornell C. & Larcker D.F. (1981), "Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error", Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 18, n°1, p.p. 39‑50.

Gefen D. (2004), "What makes an erp implementation relationship worthwhile: linking trust mechanisms and erp usefulness", Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 21, n°1, p.p. 263‑288.

Gefen, Karahanna & Straub (2003), "Trust and tam in online shopping: an integrated model", MIS Quarterly, vol. 27, n°1, p.p. 51.

Giffinger R., Haindlmaier G. & Kramar H. (2010), "The role of rankings in growing city competition", Urban Research & Practice, vol. 3, n°3, p.p. 299‑312.

Giffinger R., Kramar H., Haindl G. & Fertner C. (2007), Smart cities Ranking of European medium-sized cities, Vienna University of Technology. Available at: [Consulté le avril 21, 2016].

Gil-Garcia J.R., Pardo T.A. & Nam T. (2015), "What makes a city smart? identifying core components and proposing an integrative and comprehensive conceptualization", Information Polity, vol. 20, n°1, p.p. 61‑87.

Goldman T. & Gorham R. (2006), "Sustainable urban transport: four innovative directions", Technology in Society, vol. 28, n°1‑2, p.p. 261‑273.

Grotenhuis J.-W., Wiegmans B.W. & Rietveld P. (2007), "The desired quality of integrated multimodal travel information in public transport: customer needs for time and effort savings", Transport Policy, vol. 14, n°1, p.p. 27‑38.

Gupta R. & Jain K. (2014), "Adoption of mobile telephony in rural india: an empirical study", Decision Sciences, vol. 45, n°2, p.p. 281‑307.

Hair J., Hollingsworth C.L., Randolph A.B. & Chong A.Y.L. (2017), "An updated and expanded assessment of pls-sem in information systems research", Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117, n°3, p.p. 442‑458.

Hesselgren M., Sjöman M. & Pernestål A. (2019), "Understanding user practices in mobility service systems: results from studying large scale corporate maas in practice", Travel Behaviour and Society. Available at: [Consulté le avril 1, 2020].

Homans G.C. (1958), "Social behavior as exchange", American Journal of Sociology, vol. 63, n°6, p.p. 597‑606.

Homans G.C. (1974), Social Behavior : Its Elementary Forms, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

Jarvis C.B., MacKenzie S.B. & Podsakoff P.M. (2003), "A critical review of construct indicators and measurement model misspecification in marketing and consumer research", Journal of consumer research, vol. 30, n°2, p.p. 199‑218.

Johns G. (2006), "The essential impact of context on organizational behavior", Academy of Management Review, vol. 31, n°2, p.p. 386‑408.

de Jong M., Joss S., Schraven D., Zhan C. & Weijnen M. (2015), "Sustainable–smart–resilient–low carbon–eco–knowledge cities; making sense of a multitude of concepts promoting sustainable urbanization", Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 109, p.p. 25‑38.

Kapser S. & Abdelrahman M. (2020), "Acceptance of autonomous delivery vehicles for last-mile delivery in germany – extending utaut2 with risk perceptions", Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol. 111, p.p. 210‑225.

King W.R. & He J. (2006), "A meta-analysis of the technology acceptance model", Information & Management, vol. 43, n°6, p.p. 740‑755.

Kummitha R.K.R. & Crutzen N. (2017), "How do we understand smart cities? an evolutionary perspective", Cities, vol. 67, p.p. 43‑52.

Lebrument N. & Robertie C. de L. (2019), "Thinking the organisational and managerial challenges of intelligent towns and cities: a critical approach to the smart cities phenomenon", M@n@gement, vol. 22, n°2, p.p. 357‑372.

Legris P., Ingham J. & Collerette P. (2003), "Why do people use information technology? a critical review of the technology acceptance model", Information & Management, vol. 40, p.p. 191‑204.

Li Y. & Voege T. (2017), "Mobility as a service (maas): challenges of implementation and policy required", Journal of Transportation Technologies, vol. 7, n°2, p.p. 95‑106.

Liimatainen H. & Mladenović M.N. (2018), "Understanding the complexity of mobility as a service", Research in Transportation Business & Management, vol. 27, p.p. 1‑2.

Lohmöller J.-B. (2013), Latent Variable Path Modeling with Partial Least Squares, Springer Science & Business Media.

Lyons G., Hammond P. & Mackay K. (2019), "The importance of user perspective in the evolution of maas", Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 121, p.p. 22‑36.

MAAS-Alliance (2020), "What is maas?", MAAS-Alliance. Available at: [Consulté le avril 30, 2020].

MacKenzie S.B., Podsakoff P.M. & Jarvis C.B. (2005), "The problem of measurement model misspecification in behavioral and organizational research and some recommended solutions.", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 90, n°4, p.p. 710‑730.

MacKenzie S.B., Podsakoff P.M. & Podsakoff N.P. (2011), "Construct measurement and validation procedures in mis and behavioral research: integrating new and existing techniques", MIS Quarterly, vol. 35, n°2, p.p. 293‑334.

Magni M., Susan Taylor M. & Venkatesh V. (2010), "‘To play or not to play’: a cross-temporal investigation using hedonic and instrumental perspectives to explain user intentions to explore a technology", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 68, n°9, p.p. 572‑588.

Manis K.T. & Choi D. (2019), "The virtual reality hardware acceptance model (vr-ham): extending and individuating the technology acceptance model (tam) for virtual reality hardware", Journal of Business Research, vol. 100, p.p. 503‑513.

Marsden G. & Reardon L. (2018), "Introduction". In G. Marsden & L. Reardon, éd. Governance of the Smart Mobility Transition. Emerald Publishing Limited, p. 1‑15. Available at: [Consulté le avril 28, 2020].

Mora L., Deakin M. & Reid A. (2018), "Strategic principles for smart city development: a multiple case study analysis of european best practices", Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Available at: [Consulté le août 3, 2018].

Motta G., Ferrara A., Sacco D., You L. & Cugola G. (2013), "Integrated mobility: a research in progress", Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, vol. 6, n°3, p.p. 97‑101.

Nielsen J. (1993), Usability Engineering Morgan Kaufmann., San Mateo, CA, Morgan Kaufmann.

Owusu Kwateng K., Osei Atiemo K.A. & Appiah C. (2019), "Acceptance and use of mobile banking: an application of utaut2", Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 32, n°1, p.p. 118‑151.

Pai F.-Y. & Huang K.-I. (2011), "Applying the technology acceptance model to the introduction of healthcare information systems", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 78, n°4, p.p. 650‑660.

Pando-Garcia J., Periañez-Cañadillas I. & Charterina J. (2016), "Business simulation games with and without supervision: an analysis based on the tam model", Journal of Business Research, vol. 69, n°5, p.p. 1731‑1736.

Pangbourne K., Stead D., Mladenović M. & Milakis D. (2018a), "The case of mobility as a service: a critical reflection on challenges for urban transport and mobility governance". In G. Marsden & L. Reardon, éd. Governance of the Smart Mobility Transition. Emerald Publishing Limited, p. 33‑48. Available at: [Consulté le avril 1, 2020].

Pangbourne K., Stead D., Mladenović M. & Milakis D. (2018b), "The case of mobility as a service: a critical reflection on challenges for urban transport and mobility governance". In G. Marsden & L. Reardon, éd. Governance of the Smart Mobility Transition. Emerald Publishing Limited, p. 33‑48. Available at: [Consulté le juin 27, 2020].

Park S.Y., Nam M.-W. & Cha S.-B. (2012), "University students’ behavioral intention to use mobile learning: evaluating the technology acceptance model", British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 43, n°4, p.p. 592‑605.

Pasquier H. (2012), "Définir l’acceptabilité sociale dans les modèles d’usage: vers l’introduction de la valeur sociale dans la prédiction du comportement d’utilisation",

Pavlou P.A. (2003), "Consumer acceptance of electronic commerce: integrating trust and risk with the technology acceptance model", International Journal of Electronic Commerce, vol. 7, n°3, p.p. 101‑134.

Pavlou P.A. & Gefen D. (2004), "Building effective online marketplaces with institution-based trust", Information Systems Research, vol. 15, n°1, p.p. 37‑59.

Picon A. (2018), "Urban infrastructure, imagination and politics: from the networked metropolis to the smart city", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 42, n°2, p.p. 263‑275.

Preston J. (2010), "What’s so funny about peace, love and transport integration?", Research in Transportation Economics, vol. 29, n°1, p.p. 329‑338.

Ramírez-Correa P., Rondán-Cataluña F.J., Arenas-Gaitán J. & Martín-Velicia F. (2019), "Analysing the acceptation of online games in mobile devices: an application of utaut2", Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 50, p.p. 85‑93.

Ramkumar M., Schoenherr T., Wagner S.M. & Jenamani M. (2019), "Q-tam: a quality technology acceptance model for predicting organizational buyers’ continuance intentions for e-procurement services", International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 216, p.p. 333‑348.

Ringle C.M. & Sarstedt M. (2016), "Gain more insight from your pls-sem results: the importance-performance map analysis", Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116, n°9, p.p. 1865‑1886.

Rogers E.M. (2003), Diffusion of Innovations 5th éd., New York, S & S International.

Rossiter J.R. (2002), "The c-oar-se procedure for scale development in marketing", International journal of research in marketing, vol. 19, n°4, p.p. 305–335.

Sagnier C., Loup-Escande É. & Valléry G. (2019), "Acceptabilité de la réalité virtuelle : une revue de la littérature", Le travail humain, vol. Vol. 82, n°3, p.p. 183‑212.

Sarasini S., Sochor J. & Arby H. (2017), "What characterises a sustainable maas business model?". In Tampere, Finland, p. 16.

Sarkar S., Chauhan S. & Khare A. (2020), "A meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of trust in mobile commerce", International Journal of Information Management, vol. 50, p.p. 286‑301.

Schnall R., Higgins T., Brown W., Carballo-Dieguez A. & Bakken S. (2015), "Trust, perceived risk, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness as factors related to mhealth technology use", Studies in health technology and informatics, vol. 216, p.p. 467‑471.

Shaheen S. & Chan N. (2016), "Mobility and the sharing economy: potential to facilitate the first- and last-mile public transit connections", Built Environment, vol. 42, n°4, p.p. 573‑588.

Shaw H., Ellis D.A. & Ziegler F.V. (2018), "The technology integration model (tim). predicting the continued use of technology", Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 83, p.p. 204‑214.

Sheppard B.H., Hartwick J. & Warshaw P.R. (1988), "The theory of reasoned action: a meta-analysis of past research with recommendations for modifications and future research", Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 15, n°3, p.p. 325‑343.

Sochor J., Arby H., Karlsson I.C.M. & Sarasini S. (2018), "A topological approach to mobility as a service: a proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals", Research in Transportation Business & Management, vol. 27, p.p. 3‑14.

Surakka T., Härri F., Haahtela T., Horila A. & Michl T. (2018), "Regulation and governance supporting systemic maas innovations", Research in Transportation Business & Management, vol. 27, p.p. 56‑66.

Tamilmani K., Rana N. & Dwivedi Y. (2020), "Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: a meta-analytic evaluation of utaut2", Information Systems Frontiers.

Tamilmani K., Rana N., Dwivedi Y. & Prakasam N. (2019), "The battle of brain vs. heart: a literature review and meta-analysis of “hedonic motivation” use in utaut2", International Journal of Information Management, vol. 46, p.p. 222‑235.

Taylor S. & Todd P.A. (1995), "Understanding information technology usage: a test of competing models", Information Systems Research, vol. 6, n°2, p.p. 144‑176.

Tenenhaus M. (1998), La régression PLS: théorie et pratique, Paris, Technip.

Tenenhaus M., Amato S. & Esposito Vinzi V. (2004), "A global goodness-of-fit index for pls structural equation modelling". In Proceedings of the XLII SIS scientific meeting. p. 739‑742. Available at: [Consulté le avril 2, 2017].

Tenenhaus M., Vinzi V.E., Chatelin Y.-M. & Lauro C. (2005), "PLS path modeling", Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, vol. 48, n°1, p.p. 159‑205.

Thompson R.L., Higgins C.A. & Howell J.M. (1991), "Personal computing: toward a conceptual model of utilization", MIS Quarterly, vol. 15, n°1, p.p. 125‑143.

Tomor Z., Meijer A., Michels A. & Geertman S. (2019), "Smart governance for sustainable cities: findings from a systematic literature review", Journal of Urban Technology, vol. 26, n°4, p.p. 3‑27.

Trindade E.P. et al. (2017), "Sustainable development of smart cities: a systematic review of the literature", Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, vol. 3, n°1, p.p. 11.

Utriainen R. & Pöllänen M. (2018), "Review on mobility as a service in scientific publications", Research in Transportation Business & Management, vol. 27, p.p. 15‑23.

Vallerand R.J. (1997), "Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation". In M. P. Zanna, éd. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, p. 271‑360. Available at: [Consulté le mai 16, 2020].

Venkatesh, Morris, Davis & Davis (2003), "User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view", MIS Quarterly, vol. 27, n°3, p.p. 425‑478.

Venkatesh V. & Davis F.D. (2000), "A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies", Management Science, vol. 46, n°2, p.p. 186‑204.

Venkatesh V., Thong J.Y.L. & Xu X. (2012), "Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology", MIS Quarterly, vol. 36, n°1, p.p. 157‑178.

Verma P. & Sinha N. (2018), "Integrating perceived economic wellbeing to technology acceptance model: the case of mobile based agricultural extension service", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 126, p.p. 207‑216.

Wang S.W., Ngamsiriudom W. & Hsieh C.-H. (2015), "Trust disposition, trust antecedents, trust, and behavioral intention", The Service Industries Journal, vol. 35, n°10, p.p. 555‑572.

Wetzels M., Odekerken-Schröder G. & van Oppen C. (2009), "Using pls path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: guidelines and empirical illustration", MIS Quarterly, vol. 33, n°1, p.p. 177‑195.

de Wijs L., Witte P. & Geertman S. (2016), "How smart is smart? theoretical and empirical considerations on implementing smart city objectives – a case study of dutch railway station areas", Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 29, n°4, p.p. 422‑439.

Wold H. (1982), "Soft modeling : the basic design and some extensions". In Systems under indirect observation : causality, structure, prediction. Amsterdam, North-Holland, p. 1‑54.

Wold H.O. (1985), "Partial least squares". In S. Kotz & N. L. Johnson, éd. Encyclopedia of statistical sciences. New York, Wiley, p. 581‑591.

Wong Y.Z., Hensher D.A. & Mulley C. (2020), "Mobility as a service (maas): charting a future context", Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 131, p.p. 5‑19.

Wu I.-L. & Chen J.-L. (2005), "An extension of trust and tam model with tpb in the initial adoption of on-line tax: an empirical study", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 62, n°6, p.p. 784‑808.

Ye J., Zheng J. & Yi F. (2020), "A study on users’ willingness to accept mobility as a service based on utaut model", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 157, p.p. 120066.

Yee‐Loong Chong A., Ooi K., Lin B. & Tan B. (2010), "Online banking adoption: an empirical analysis", International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 28, n°4, p.p. 267‑287.

Zeithaml V.A. (1988), "Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence", Journal of Marketing, vol. 52, n°3, p.p. 2‑22.