The Naturalistic Decision-Making process in big data environment: The case of a Police Information and Command Center (ICC)


  • Cécile Godé Aix-Marseille Université
  • Jean-Fabrice Lebraty Université de Lyon Jean Moulin, iaelyon, Magellan, Lyon, France
  • Jordan Vazquez Université Polytechnique Hauts de France, IDP, Valenciennes, France


Big data environment, Naturalistic decision making, Police, Recognition primed decision, Situational awareness


Naturalistic Decision-Making is a mainstream research paradigm to study decision-making of experts confronted to dynamic and changing conditions, ill-defined goals and time stress. For the last ten years, contributions encourage the analysis of human-technology interactions to refine our understanding of naturalistic decision-making. Drawing on this perceptive, an inductive qualitative case study is completed to understand how experts police officers in an Information and Command Center (ICC), facing with dynamic and changing conditions, ill-defined goals and time stress, make decisions in big data environment. ICC daily produces an important volume of varied and responsive data, which need to be verified. Police officers assemble these data in situation, from unintegrated technologies. The case analysis shows two distinct stages of decision-making process in big data environment: the upstream level of situational awareness, complete or partial according to the circumstances, and the recognition process. These results allow suggesting an integrated model of naturalistic decision-making, applied to ICC Police officers in big data environment.


Ash J., Smallman C. (2010), “A case study of decision making in emergencies”, Risk Management, vol. 12, n°3, p. 185-207.

Angot J., Milano P. (2007), « Comment lier concepts et données ? », in R.-A. Thietart (Ed.), Méthodes de recherche en management, 3ème Ed., Dunod, Paris, p. 173-191.

Baber C., Fulthorpe C., Houghton R. (2010), “Supporting naturalistic decision making through location-based photography: A study of simulated military reconnaissance”, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 26, n°2-3, p. 147-172.

Bell S., Fisher D., Brown S., Mann K. (2018), “An approach for conducting actionable research with extreme teams”, Journal of Management, vol. 47, n°7, p. 2740-2765.

Bourgeois L. (1981), “On the measurement of organizational slack”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 6, n°1, p. 29-39.

Bouty I., Drucker-Godard C., Godé C., Lièvre P., Nizet J., Pichault F. (2011), « Les pratiques de coordination en situations extrêmes », Management & Avenir, vol. 10, n°41, p. 387-393.

Cavaye A. (1996), “Case study research: A multi‐faceted research approach for IS”, Information Systems Journal, vol. 6, n°3, p. 227-242.

Conrado S., Neville K., Woodworth S., O’Riordan S. (2016), “Managing social media uncertainty to support the decision-making process during emergencies”, Journal of Decision Systems, vol. 25, n°1, p. 171-181.

Corbin J., Strauss A.L., (1990), “Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative Criteria”, Qualitative Sociology, vol. 13, n°1, p. 3-21.

Craig C., Klein M.I., Griswold J., Gaitonde K., McGill T., Halldorsson A. (2012), “Using cognitive task analysis to identify critical decisions in the laparoscopic environment”, Human Factors, vol. 54, n°6, p. 1025-1039.

Cunha M., Clegg S., Kamoche K. (2006), “Surprises in management and organization: Concept, sources and a typology”, British Journal of Management, vol. 17, n°4, p. 317-329.

Davenport T. (2014), Stratégie Big Data, Pearson Education, Paris.

Emani C.K., Cullot N., Nicolle C. (2015), “Understandable Big Data: A survey”, Computer Science Review, vol. 14, p. 70-81.

Endsley M. (1988), “Design and evaluation for situation awareness enhancement”, Proceedings of the Human Factors Society, 32nd Annual Meeting Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society, p. 97-101.

Endsley M. (1995), “Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems”, Human Factors, vol. 37, n°1, p. 32-64.

Endsley M., Garland D. (Eds.) (2000), Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.

Flanagan J.C. (1954), “The critical incident technique”, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 51, n°4, p. 327-358.

Glaser, B.G., Strauss A.L. (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, IL Aldine: Chicago.

Godé C., Vazquez J. (2017), La prise de décision en environnement Big Data : une application aux forces de la Police Nationale Française. Rapport, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de la Police (ENSP), Septembre.

Godé C. (2015), Team Coordination in Extreme Environments: Work Practices and Technological Uses Under Uncertainty, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Godé C., Lebraty J.F. (2013), “Improving decision-making in extreme environment: The case of a military Decision Support System”, The International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, vol. 9, n°1, p. 1-17.

Godé C. (2012), « Compétences collectives et retour d’expérience ‘à chaud’. Le cas de l’Équipe de voltige de l’armée de l'air », Revue Française de Gestion, vol. 223, n°4, p. 167-180.

Gore J., Banks A., Millward L., Kyriakidou O. (2006), “Naturalistic Decision Making and organizations: Reviewing pragmatic science”, Organization Studies, vol. 27, n°7, p. 925–942.

Gore J., Ward P., Conway G., Ormerod T., Wong W., Stanton N. (2018), “Naturalistic decision making: Navigating uncertainty in complex sociotechnical work”, Cognition Technology & Work, vol. 20, n°4, p. 521-527.

Groenendaal J., Helsloot I. (2016), “The application of Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) and other research: Lessons for frontline commanders”, Journal of Management & Organization, vol. 22, n°2, p. 173-185.

Groenewald C., Attfield S., Passmore P., Wong W., Kodagoda N. (2018) “A descriptive, practical, hybrid argumentation model to assist with the formulation of defensible assessments in uncertain sense-making environments”, in G. Leventakis and M. Haberfeld (eds.), Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations, Springer, p. 69-83.

Hällgren M., Rouleau L., De Rond M. (2018), “A matter of life or death: How extreme context research matters for management and organization studies”, Academy of Management Annals, vol. 12, n°1, p. 111-153.

Hlady Rispal M. (2015), « Une stratégie de recherche en gestion : l’étude de cas », Revue française de gestion, vol. 8, n°253, p. 251-266.

Hoffman R.R., Crandall B., Shadbolt N. (1998), “Use of the critical decision method to elicit expert knowledge: A case study in the methodology of cognitive task analysis”, Human Factors, vol. 40, n°2, p. 254-276.

Horita F., Albuquerque J.P., Marchezini V., Mendiondo E. (2017), “Bridging the gap between decision-making and emerging big data sources: An application of a model-based framework to disaster management in Brazil”, Decision Support Systems, vol. 97, p. 12-22.

Johns G. (2006), “The essential impact of context on organizational behaviour”, The Academy of Management Review, vol. 31, n°2, p. 386-408.

Klein G., Calderwood, R., Macgregor, D. (1989), “Critical decision method for eliciting knowledge”, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 19, n°3, p. 462-472.

Klein G., Klinger, D. (1991), Naturalistic decision making, Human Systems IAC Gateway, vol. 2, n°1, p. 16-19.

Klein G. (1993), “A recognition-primed decision (RPD) model of rapid decision making”, in G. Klein, J. Orasanu, R. Calderwood, C. and Zsambok (eds.), Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, Praeger, p. 138-147.

Klein G. (1998), Sources of Power How People Make Decisions, MIT Press.

Lebraty J.F., Pastorelli-Nègre I. (2004), « Biais cognitifs : quel statut dans la prise de décision assistée ? », Systèmes d’Information et Management, vol. 9, n°3, p. 87-116.

Militello L., Sushereba C., Branlat M., Bean R., Finomore V. (2015), “Designing for military pararescue: Naturalistic decision-making perspective, methods, and frameworks”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 88, p. 251-272.

Mosier K. (2012), “Technology and “naturalistic” decision making: Myths and realities”, in J.-M. Schraagen, L. Militello, T. Ormerod and R. Lipshitz (eds), Naturalistic Decision Making and macrocognition, Ashgate Publishing Limited, p. 41-54.

Mosier K., Fischer U., Hoffman R., Klein G. (2018) “Expert professional judgments and naturalistic decision making”, in: K. Ericsson, R. Hoffman, A. Kozbelt and M. Williams (eds), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 453-475.

Okoli J., Weller G., Watt J. (2016), “Information processing and intuitive decision-making on the fireground: Towards a model of expert intuition”, Cognition, Technology & Work, vol. 18, n°1, p. 89-103.

Parnell K., Stanton N., Plant K. (2018), “Good intentions: drivers’ decisions to engage with technology on the road and in a driving simulator”, Cognition, Technology & Work, vol. 20, n°4, p. 597-619.

Van Rijmenam M. (2014), Think bigger: Developing a successful Big Data strategy for your business, AMACOM, American Management Association, USA.

Schneckenberg D., Velamuri V., Comberg C., Spieth P. (2017), “Business model innovation and decision making: Uncovering mechanisms for coping with uncertainty”, R&D Management, vol. 47, n°3, p. 404-419.

Shattuck L., Miller N. (2006), “Extending Naturalistic Decision Making to complex organizations: A dynamic model of situated cognition”, Organization Studies, vol. 27, n°7, p. 989-1009.

Simon H.A. (1947), Administrative behavior, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Simon H.A. (1955), “A behavioral model of rational choice”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, p. 99-118.

Stanton N., Wong W. (2010), “Editorial: Explorations into Naturalistic Decision Making with computers”, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 26, n°2-3, p. 99-107.

Strauss A., Corbin J. (2008), Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 3rd Ed., Sage Publication, London.

Troilo G., De Luca L., Atuahene‐Gima K. (2014), “More Innovation with Less? A Strategic Contingency View of Slack Resources, Information Search, and Radical Innovation”, The Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 31, n°2, p. 259-277.

Van den Heuvel C., Alison L., Power N. (2014), “Coping with uncertainty: Police strategies for resilient decision-making and action implementation”, Cognition Technology & Work, vol. 16, p. 25-45.

Vazquez J. (2018), Le processus de décision intuitive en environnement Big Data : le cas du Centre d’Information et de Commandement de la Police Nationale (DDSP 13), thèse de doctorat en sciences de gestion, Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3, novembre.

Vitari C., Raguseo E. (2016), “Digital data, dynamic capability and financial performance: An empirical investigation in the era of Big Data”, Systèmes d’Information et Management, vol. 21, n°3, p. 63-92.

Ward J., Barker A. (2013), “Undefined by data: A survey of big data definitions”, CoRR, abs/1309.5821.

Weick K., Sutcliffe K. (2007), Managing the Unexpected: Resilient Performance in an Age of Uncertainty, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Yates F. (2001), “Outsider: Impressions of naturalistic decision making”, in E. Salas and G. Klein (eds.), Linking expertise and naturalistic decision making, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, p. 9-33.



How to Cite

Godé, C., Lebraty, J.-F., & Vazquez, J. (2019). The Naturalistic Decision-Making process in big data environment: The case of a Police Information and Command Center (ICC). Systèmes d’Information Et Management (French Journal of Management Information Systems), 24(3), 67–96. Retrieved from



Teaching case studies